Ankle Pain

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

The tarsal tunnel is a narrow tunnel on the inside of the ankle comprised of the bones of the ankle and the flexor retinaculum (a band of fibrous tissue). Various structures travel through this tunnel into the foot including arteries, veins, tendons and nerves. The posterior tibial nerve is inclu ...

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Talar Osteophytes

Osteophytes (bone spurs) are small bony outgrowths that develop along joint lines in response to repetitive microtrauma. Osteophytes that develop on the talus (foot bone) typically occur either anteriorly (front) or posteriorly (back). Anterior talar osteophytes cause pain on forced dorsiflexion (li ...

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Osteochondritis of the Navicular (Kohler’s disease)

Osteochondritis or Kohler's disease is a rare condition, affecting children in which the navicular bone (a bone in the arch of the foot) becomes inflamed. Although it is unclear why it occurs, there is a limited blood supply to the navicular, which results in avascular necrosis (bone deterioration). ...

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Fat Pad Syndrome

Fat Pad syndrome occurs in the older individual where the fat pad underneath the heel degenerates. As a result, shock absorption becomes limited and the calcaneus (heel bone) is placed under increased stress. Fat pad syndrome typically presents in the older individual as pain located directly undern ...

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Ankle Sprains

An ankle sprain refers to a tear of one or more of the ligaments within the ankle joint. The most common type of ankle sprain occurs with a combined plantarflexion (pointed toes) and inversion (rolled inwards) motion. The most commonly affected ligament is the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) ...

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Ankle Joint Dysfunction

The ankle joint is composed of several bones and three joints, joining the bones of the lower leg to the foot.

  • Talotibial Joint: The talotibial joint connects the tibia with the talus bone of the foot. Talotibial dysfunction is the term used to describe a number of injuries that affect ...

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Achilles Tendinitis (Achillobursitis/Retrocalcaneal Bursitis)

Achilles tendinitis is an overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, which joins the calf muscles to the heel bone. Achilles tendinitis occurs when the tendon and calf has been placed under increased demand, such as in running and jumping sports. Tendinitis is the term given to inflammation, therefor ...

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