Foot and Toe Pain

Turf Toe

Turf toe is the name given to a sprained plantar (underneath) capsule of the big toe, typically due to a hyperextension injury where the toe is bent beyond normal limits. It can be either acute or chronic. An acute presentation is typically due to a sudden hyperextension injury following direct trau ...

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Sesamoiditis

There are normally two sesamoid bones in each foot, located underneath and just behind the big toe. These sesamoids are attachment points for the flexor tendons of the big toe and also act as a pulley for the flexor hallucis longus muscle in flexion, or bending, of the big toe. Sesamoiditis is an in ...

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Plantar Fasciitis

The plantar fascia is a ligament that helps support the foot arch. It connects to the heel and fans out to connect to the metatarsals (base of the toes). Irritation or damage to this ligament due to repetitive stress results in pain and inflammation under the base of the foot and is called Plantar F ...

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Morton’s Neuroma

Morton’s neuroma is a benign neuroma (non-malignant tumour) of an intermetatarsal plantar nerve. It begins as a low-grade entrapment of a single nerve (typically between the second or third toe spaces). This increased pressure causes low-grade repetitive trauma to the nerve resulting in chronic irri ...

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Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is the general term given to pain and inflammation felt along the metatarsal region (ball of the foot). Metatarsalgia can either be acute or chronic. Acute cases are generally due to acute trauma including jumping or landing on the toes, running or jogging on the toes or standing for l ...

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Metatarsal Stress Fractures

Stress fractures within the foot occur when repetitive stress is placed on a particular foot bone (metatarsal) with insufficient recovery periods between stressors. This constant stress exceeds the structural integrity of the bone in question, leading to a fracture. The second metatarsal is the most ...

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Ingrown Toenails

Ingrown toenails occur when the nail does not fit the nail groove and commonly affects the big toe. Either the inside edge or the outside edge can be afflicted and is commonly caused by poorly trimmed nails, ill-fitting shoes and trauma.  Ingrown toenails can lead to inflammation and swelling of the ...

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Hallux Valgus

Hallux valgus is a deformity of the base joint of the big toe, involving a lateral (outward) deviation of the big toe. Deformity can occur due to a number of reasons, including hereditary factors, prior forefoot deformity, arthritis and poor footwear. The deformity can lead to irritation and increas ...

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Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus means ‘stiff big toe’. It is the term given to osteoarthritic and capsular changes of the base joint of the big toe, resulting in stiffness and limited range of motion of the big toe. These changes at the joint may be a result of aging, typically occurring later in life, or may occur ...

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Gout

Gout is a type of metabolic disorder where increased uric acid in the blood leads to the formation crystal deposits, called tophi, and is generally the result of dietary or genetic factors.  These crystals deposit in joints, tendons and soft tissue in various body sites, typically the first toe, kne ...

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Fungal Infections

Fungal infections of the toenails, known as onychomycosis, are common as the fungal organisms are attracted to the dark and humid environment of enclosed shoes.  Infections can cause thickening, deformation, discolouration, crumbling and splitting of the toenail, which can be very painful.  Treatmen ...

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Foot and Toe Joint Dysfunction

The foot joint is composed of several bones and two main joints.

  • Metatarsal Joint: The Metatarsal bones are the 5 bones in the foot that connect the midfoot to the toes. The Metatarsal Joint connects the phalanges of the toes to the metatarsal bones.
  • Interphalangeal Joint: T ...

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Fifth Metatarsal Fractures

The fifth metatarsal is a long bone on the lateral (outside) aspect of the foot located between the small toe and the midfoot. Fifth metatarsal fractures present as sudden pain and inflammation along the lateral (outside) aspect of the foot as well as point tenderness and typically occur during runn ...

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Diabetes Management

Diabetes can significantly affect the health of the lower leg and foot.  You are particularly at risk if you have suffered diabetes for a long time, your blood sugar is too high or you are a smoker.   Problems are caused by compromised blood flow and nerve damage.   Symptoms include numbness of the ...

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Corns & Callouses

Corns and callouses are created by pressure and/or friction which causes overproduction of naturally occurring keratin in the skin to create thickening.  Poorly fitted shoes, toes rubbing against each other are common causes. ...

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Calcaneal Spur (Heel Spur)

A calcaneal spur or heel spur is a bone growth that occurs on either the plantar (bottom of the heel) aspect of the calcaneus or dorsal (back of the heel) aspect of the calcaneus, sometimes both may be present. The growth of the bone spur results in pain and tenderness due to the inflammatory proces ...

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