Hip, Groin and Thigh Pain

Trochanteric Pain Syndrome

Trochanteric pain syndrome refers to a number of conditions that produce pain over the greater trochanter (bony prominence on the outside of the upper thigh bone). The most common cause of trochanteric pain syndrome is bursitis (inflammation of one of the bursae, which are fluid filled sacs that act ...

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Trochanteric Bursitis

Bursae are fluid filled sacs that act to reduce friction between bones, tendons and/or muscles surrounding certain joints. The superficial trochanteric bursa is located over the greater trochanter, the prominent bone on the side of the hip and is the most commonly irritated bursa, while the deep tro ...

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Traumatic Hip Dislocations

Traumatic Hip Dislocation is the result of severe trauma such as a car accident or a fall from great heights and typically occurs either anteriorly or posteriorly. Anterior (front) hip dislocations typically follow a blunt trauma to the hip while it is positioned in extension (back) and internal (in ...

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Transient Synovitis

The synovium is a layer of connective tissue that lines the surface of synovial joints for the purpose of producing synovial fluid, which acts as a lubricant within the joints, limiting friction. Almost all of the body’s joints are synovial. Transient (temporary) synovitis (inflammation of the syno ...

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Stress Fractures (Neck of Femur Fracture)

Stress fractures within the hip occur when repetitive stress is placed on the femoral neck (upper aspect of the thigh bone) with insufficient recovery and rest between aggravating activities. The continual stress eventually affects the structural integrity of the bone leading to a stress fracture. S ...

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Snapping Hip Syndrome

Snapping Hip Syndrome refers to a snapping or popping sound heard or felt around the hip generally associated with particular movements such as walking, standing from a chair or swinging the leg around. It is the sound made by tendons as they ‘snap’ over bony prominences or bursae. Snapping hip s ...

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Slipped Capital Epiphysis (Adolescent Coxa Vara)

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is the name given to the disorder when the head (“ball”) of the femur separates from the rest of the femur (thigh bone) along the growth plate, causing the femur to slip in a backwards direction. This slippage may be acute or chronic. Acute slippage typically pr ...

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Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hip Joint

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory arthridity referring to a chronic autoimmune disease that causes progressive inflammation within the joints resulting in painful deformation and altered mobility. In the hip RA presents bilaterally (affecting both hips). It typically presents in middle-ag ...

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Quadriceps Muscle Strain/Quadriceps Muscle Tear

The quadriceps are a group of four powerful muscles located at the front of the thigh responsible for flexing the hip and extending the knee. A quadriceps strain occurs when a sudden contraction of the quadriceps causes a pull or rupture of the muscle fibres. Some predispositions to a quadriceps str ...

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Paget’s Disease

Paget’s disease is a chronic disorder where excessive amounts of bone are broken down and reformed in a disorganised way. The result is the formation of enlarged, misshapen bones. The cause of Paget’s disease is unknown, however it is believed to be related to a viral disease. Ninety percent of ...

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Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint

Osteoarthritis (OA) refers to the progressive degeneration of a joint. In the hip, OA refers to the degeneration of the articular (joint) cartilage of the femoral head (ball) or acetabulum (hip socket) and may be either primary or secondary. ● Primary OA is progressive degeneration due to aging, ...

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Osteitis Pubis

Osteitis pubis refers to inflammation of the pubic joint. It is typically due to repetitive overuse, either by direct compression of the joint or a repetitive pulling of the joint via surrounding structures resulting in irritation and inflammation at the front of the pelvis where the two pubic bones ...

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Muscle Contusions/Myositis Ossificans

A contusion refers to damaged tissue as a result of direct trauma in which capillaries have been damaged resulting in a haematoma formation (bruise). Myositis ossificans may develop following an inadequately healed contusion injury of the quadriceps muscle and involves the formation of calcification ...

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Meralgia Paresthetica

Meralgia paraesthetica refers to a compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve as it travels through the inguinal ligament (groin region) resulting in numbness or tingling over the lateral (outer) thigh. It typically occurs due to prolonged sitting, the wearing of tight clothing or the freque ...

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Leg-Calve-Perthe’s Disease (Avascular Necrosis of the Hip)

Leg-Calve-Perthe’s disease, or Perthe’s disease, is a rare childhood disorder where blood supply to the head (ball) of the femur (thigh bone) is temporarily disrupted. The lack of blood supply results in avascular necrosis, where the bone cells begin to die. There are 4 stages of the disease. Stage ...

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Ischial Bursitis

Bursae are fluid filled sacs that act to reduce friction between bones, tendons and/or muscles surrounding certain joints. The ischial bursa is located over the ischial tuberosity (sitting bone) and can become irritated, inflamed and painful (bursitis) by direct trauma or via hamstring strains. It t ...

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Iliopectineal Bursitis and Iliopsoas Bursitis

Bursae are fluid filled sacs that act to reduce friction between bones, tendons and/or muscles surrounding certain joints. The Iliopectineal bursa, also known as the iliopsoas bursa, is located anteriorly, or at the front of the hip, and can become irritated when hip flexor hypertonicity (tightness) ...

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Hip Fractures

A hip fracture is a break in the upper quarter of the femur (thigh bone) and primarily occurs due to a fall or direct trauma to the hip. Some conditions that affect the integrity of bones including osteoporosis, cancer or repetitive stress injuries, make the hip more susceptible to fractures, which ...

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Hamstring Muscle Injury

The hamstring muscles are a group of three muscles located at the back of the leg and are responsible for extending (straightening) the hip and flexing (bending) the knee. A hamstring strain is a common injury and occurs when an over contraction of the hamstrings is applied while in a stretched posi ...

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Femoroacetabular Impingement

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a disorder of the hip where the bones of the ball and socket hip joint are abnormally shaped causing rubbing, irritation and damage to the joint. There are 3 types of abnormalities associated with a FAI disorder. ● A CAM impingement is an abnormality of the ba ...

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Congenital Hip Dislocation (Congenital Hip Dysplasia)

Congenital hip dysplasia, also known as congenital hip dislocation, is a birth deformity resulting in misalignment or dislocation of the hip joint. The cause is unknown. However, factors which are known to increase the risk include: low levels of amniotic fluid in the womb during pregnancy, the firs ...

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Adductor Muscle Injury

An adductor strain refers to an injury of the adductor tendons located near the groin. The adductor muscles are responsible for movement where the thigh is brought inwards towards the midline of the body. Adductor strains are caused by sudden contraction of the adductor muscles resulting in a sudden ...

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Acetabular Labrum Tears

The acetabular labrum is the cartilage that coats the rim of the acetabulum (hip socket) and acts to make the hip socket deeper and more stable. A tear to the acetabular labrum typically occurs due to trauma, either a significant single trauma or repetitive micro-trauma, but is associated with a num ...

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