Knee Pain

Tibial Plateau Fractures

A tibial plateau fracture is a break of the tibia (shin bone) just below the knee joint. The tibial plateau is located at the top of the shin bone, and is a wide articular surface critical for weight bearing. A fracture of the tibial plateau is relatively common and typically occurs following signif ...

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Tennis Leg

Tennis leg is the name given to a tearing of the musculotendinous junction of the medial (inside) head of the gastrocnemius (calf muscle). Typically tennis leg occurs in the middle-aged athlete following movements involving sudden knee extension such as jumping or pushing off - movements frequently ...

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Proximal Tibial-Fibular Subluxation/Dysfunction

The proximal tibial-fibular joint is located just below the knee and is made up of the tibia (shin bone) and the fibular. Movement of this joint is influenced by movement of the ankle; dorsiflexion (lifting of the toes) causes the fibular to rotate up and out while plantarflexion (pointing the toes) ...

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Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Injury

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is located within the knee and is responsible for resisting excessive posterior rotational instability of the tibia (shin bone) in relation to the femur (thigh bone). The PCL is larger and stronger than the ACL and requires a more unlikely position in order for ...

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Popliteus Tendinitis

The popliteus tendon is located at the posterior (back) and lateral (outside) aspect of the knee and helps to flex (bend) and internally (inwardly) rotate the knee. Popliteus Tendinitis occurs when the popliteus tendon has been irritated, often from repetitive downhill walking or running, resulting ...

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Pes Anserine Bursitis/Tendinitis

Bursae are fluid filled sacs that act to reduce friction between bones, tendons and/or muscles surrounding certain joints. The Pes Anserine Bursa is located between the tibia (shin bone) and three muscles: Gracilis, Sartorius and Semitendinosus muscles. The pes anserine is the tendon insertion of th ...

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Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Runner’s Knee)

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), also referred to as “runner's knee,” is the term used to describe a pain experienced underneath the patella (kneecap), known as the patellofemoral joint (the joint between the kneecap and the femur [thigh bone]). The patella is designed to glide within a groove o ...

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Patellofemoral Arthralgia (Chondromalacia Patellae)

Patellofemoral Arthralgia (soft tissue disorder) and Patellofemoral Chondromalacia (where damage to the cartilage on the underside of the patella [knee cap] has occurred) are characterised by anterior (frontal) knee pain made worse by climbing up and down stairs or sitting for prolonged periods of t ...

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Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper’s Knee)

Patellar tendinitis occurs when repetitive stress has been placed on the patella tendon, the tendon attaching the patella (kneecap) to the tibia (shin bone), resulting in irritation and inflammation surrounding the tendon. It is commonly known as Jumper’s Knee as it typically presents as anterior (f ...

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Patellar Dislocation and Subluxation

Patellar dislocation occurs when the patella (kneecap) slips out of its normal position. Patella dislocation may be due to malalignment or a sudden twist of the leg while the foot is planted in a flexed position. It presents as a sudden sharp pain and inflammation with a mass (typically lateral) tha ...

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Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) of the Knee Joint

Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) is a condition that develops in adolescents where inadequate blood supply within the joint surface causes a small segment of bone or cartilage to separate from the rest of the joint. This segment may heal on it's own over time (more common in younger cases) or continu ...

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Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the term given to degenerative changes within a joint. Degeneration within the knee usually occurs with old age, however early degeneration can occur following trauma to the joint such as overuse, increased Q angle (the angle formed by the thigh bone and the shin bone), previo ...

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Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter Disease is characterised by a painful, swollen lump located just below the knee typically seen in young athletes. Demanding activities such as running and jumping place the area from the patella tendon to the tibial tuberosity (bony lump located at the top of the shin bone) under re ...

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Meniscus Injuries to the Knee

A meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous structure within a joint and provides structural integrity. There are two menisci located within the knee (lateral meniscus and medial meniscus), which act to evenly distribute body weight throughout the knee joint. There are many types of meniscal tears, gener ...

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Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injury

The Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) is located on the medial (inner) aspect of the knee and connects the medial aspect of the tibia (shin bone) to the medial aspect of the femur (thigh bone). It is one of the ligaments responsible for knee stability, limiting excess twisting and outside-to-inside m ...

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Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Injury

The Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) is located on the lateral (outside) aspect of the knee and connects the lateral aspect of the tibia (shin bone) to the lateral aspect of the femur (thigh bone). It is one of the ligaments responsible for knee stability, limiting excessive twisting and inside-to- ...

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Knee Joint Dysfunction

The knee joint is composed of four bones - the femur, tibia, fibula and patella – and three joints. ● Tibiofemoral Joint: The tibiofemoral joint is the main weight bearing part of the knee. ● Tibiofibular Joint: The tibiofibular joint is a synovial joint and provides stability to the knee and ankl ...

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Iliotibial Band Syndrome

The Iliotibial Band (ITB) is a long band of connective tissue originating from two muscles on the outer aspect of the hip, the tensor fascia latae (TFL) and the gluteus maximus, and runs down the outer aspect of the thigh past the knee and attaches into the tibia (shin bone). ITB syndrome occurs ...

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is one of the main ligaments within the knee and is responsible for resisting excessive forward rotational instability of the tibia (shin bone) in relation to the femur (thigh bone) and is crucial for stabilising the knee when turning or planting the foot. An ACL ...

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