Scoliosis refers to an abnormal deviation in the curvature of the spine usually seen in x-rays as a lateral (sideways) S or C curvature. The majority of adult scoliosis are idiopathic (unknown cause) however some known causes include a progression of juvenile scoliosis which went untreated as a child, degenerative disc disease, osteoporosis which leads to subsequent bone flattening due to decreased bone integrity, or a combination of these factors. Symptoms of adult scoliosis include back pain at the site of scoliosis. Pain may also occur above or below the scoliotic. Possible associated pulmonary and cardiac complications may ensue depending on the severity of the scoliosis.